His main cultivar development of Chondracanthus exasperatus or Turkish Towel (photo right) was for organic certified carrageenan but found found that the sustainable growing technique he developed could work with many other species as well as; several species of kelp.

Photo left shows grow tanks at dusk.  Photo right is Tim Visi handling Wakame grown under LED's.

   Nutrient Dynamics of Seaweed in 1,200-gal tanks; in Light Period

Water Quality Variable       Finfish Effluent > Seaweed        Seaweed Effluent              D.O. (% Sat.)                                               70                                      140                         CO2 (% Sat.)                                              180                                       28                         pH                                                               8.0                                       8.7                         DIC                                                             26.7                                     23.6                       DIN (TAN)                                                  0.50                                     0.10                       DIP (PO4)                                                  0.10                                     0.03                                                                                                                                               

 The Research

Starting in 2002 Tim Visi; one of a few individuals North America that pioneered this work into intensive sustainable land based seaweed farms; grew an average of 23 metric tons per year on a 4,800 square foot farm (photo below); while phyto-remediating 31.2- million gallons of fin fish effluent per year; on a Sea Grant & private funding seaweed project at NOAA/NMFS NW Fisheries Research Lab in Manchester, WA. 

Through his six plus years of research, he was able to commercially grow 138 metric tons of organic quality seaweed while cleaning 198-million gallons of water, aquaculture effluent, from the environment.

Tim Visi was also recognized and published on the cover of the June 2007 Aquaculture Europe magazine for a  presentation to international aquaculture scientists visiting the Manchester NOAA/NMFS facility pertaining to the many types of seaweed cultivation & biomass production and their use as a phyto-remediation methods for cleaning aquaculture effluent.


The chart right (from 2002-2008 research) shows the                                                                                                                               average remediating abilities of 1,200 gpd                                                                                                                                                     (gallons per day)/tank.  These variables can be more                                                                                                                                     efficient using faster growing plants & larger tanks;                                                                                                                             especially in a fully controlled system.


After years of research, development, and design; it was found that an STC-System could be applied to many different types of nutrient sources that works for any business discharging  eutrophic stream of water that impacts aquatic freshwater (limited to one species of macroalgae), estuarine-brackish, or saltwater environments; other than aquaculture farms; or re-circulated aquaculture systems (RAS); or Mariculture (RAS involving seaweed & aquatic animal husbandry).

The (pilot/prototype) STC-System was finally developed during 2009-2011 research & commercial growing involving a 2,400-square foot greenhouse to house the-tank farm located on Sequim Bay, WA; which earned an exemption status for the STC-System due directly to the design & remediation abilities of the seaweed.  


  • Having the STC-System greenhouse pilot project located on Sequim Bay provided an opportunity to address additional challenging variables such as tidal fluctuations caused by micro-habitats, requiring complex plumbing designs, all which influenced growing operation in many different ways.
  • Sequim Bay is a known eutrophic watershed influenced by no-point discharge throughout the watershed, intensive commercial shellfish beds, slow water circulation issues, and a strong influence from the freshwater estuary fed by the Olympic National Park; which ultimately demonstrated that the STC-System used in conjunction with various specific species of seaweed capable of various water chemistries & salinities was quite capable of remediating a watershed with those types of eutrophic loadings.
  • During 2010 – 2011; we cleaned eight million gallons of water out of Sequim Bay by using six specialized 1,200-gallon tanks.


                (All photos on this website documents the research & development; and commercial growing of seaweed.                             All photos by photographer/artist: Karacn Salkuci).

Contact our Macroalgae Consultant for more information.
Tim Visi ~ seaweedguru@protonmail.com ~ (360)-670-3246